The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).